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Writing Process Phase I:Â Analyze, Anticipate, Adapt This chapter shows students how to become succe

Writing Process Phase I:Â Analyze, Anticipate, Adapt This chapter shows students how to become succe

Writing Process Phase I:  Analyze, Anticipate, Adapt
This chapter shows students how to become successful business writers by systematically following the writing process which the textbook divides into three phases:  Prewriting, Writing, and Revising.  Chapter 4 emphasizes prewriting: analyzing, anticipating, and adapting to audiences. The textbook author presents a 3-x-3 Writing Process that will guide you in writing messages.
Read carefully what is meant by you view.  Remember that you view will seldom use a first person pronoun such as I or we.  Be sure to know the exact phases of the 3-x-3 writing process as outlined by the textbook author.
Following are some examples that should help you analyze your own writing:
Using Bias-Free Language
1.  Avoiding Gender BiasUse neural, inclusive expressions and avoid sexist language.
firefighter instead of firemanletter carrier instead of mailman
2.  Avoiding Racial or Ethnic BiasIndicate racial or ethnic identification only if the context demands it.
A sales manager instead of A Korean sales managerA graphic designer instead of A Hispanic graphic designer
3.  Avoiding Age BiasSpecify age only if it is relevant, and avoid expressions that are demeaning or subjective.
The receptionist retired. instead of The older receptionist retired.a woman instead of little old lady
4.  Avoiding Disability BiasUnless relevant, do not refer to an individual’s disability.
The applicant instead of the handicapped applicant
Expressing Yourself PositivelyFind positive ways to express your ideas to avoid angry reactions from your audience. Avoid words like complaint, criticism, defective, failed, mistake, and neglected.
Being CourteousSoften the tone of your message by using a courteous tone and words like please and thank you.
Simplifying Your LanguageTo help your audience comprehend your ideas quickly, use short, familiar words that they will recognize.
Using Precise, Vigorous WordsUse strong verbs and concrete nouns to provide more specific information to your audience.
Checklist for Adapting a Message to Its AudienceIdentify the message purpose.Select the most appropriate form.Profile the audience.Focus on audience benefits.Avoid gender and racial bias.Avoid age and disability bias.Be conversational but professional.Express ideas positively rather than negatively.Use short, familiar words.Search for precise, vigorous words.
On page 121 complete Activities 4.5, 4.6, and 4.8.
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Writing Process Phase 2:  Research, Organize, Compose
This chapter explains how to carry out the second phase of the writing process: researching, organizing, and composing. First, before writing, a businessperson must collect through research all of the needed information. The gathered information helps the writer shape the message to the receiver’s need for knowledge or action. Second, the writer organizes information through direct or indirect patterns to emphasize main points and anticipate the audiences reaction. If the audience will be pleased, interested, or neutral, the writer should use the direct pattern. If the audience will be uninterested, displeased, or hostile regarding the message, the writer should use the indirect pattern. Finally, the writer composes the first draft. The chapter concludes by reviewing ways to compose effective sentences and paragraphs.
Be sure you know the difference between formal and informal research methods.Know the suggestions for effective brainstorming.Review the information about outlines on page 169.Know when to use a direct approach in business writing and when to use an indirect approach.Pay special attention to the information about constructing sentences on pages 175-178.Know when to use active voice and when to use passive voice.Be able to identify dangling and misplaced modifiers.
Writing Process Phase 3:  Revise, Proofread, Evaluate
Only 0.8 percent of the human race is capable of writing something that is understandable.H. L. Mencken, renowned American editor and critic.
Students often resist the work of significant, substantial revision in favor of proofreading, so you may wish to spend enough time on this chapter to emphasize that all three (revising, proofreading, and evaluating) are important. They must operate in concert for any written communication to be successful. Writing requires greater precision than speaking because a speaker can get instant feedback and correct misunderstandings. Writers do not have the luxury of instant feedback and reply.
As you read through the chapter, be sure you can identify the following:opening fillerscompound prepositionsredundancieslong lead-insverbs converted to nounstrite business expressionsparallel structure
Remember that verbs are the strongest part of speech.
Your assignment for these chapters:Activity 5.12 a through j, p. 145,Activity 6.5 p. 165, andActivity 6.13 p. 166