NR443 Chamberlain College Community Health Nurse Settings Discussion

QUESTION:

Community health nurses practice in a variety of settings. Choose one of the following CH settings, and describe what you have learned about the setting and the role(s) of the nurse in that setting (see Nies & McEwen, 2019, Chapters 30-34). Please do not choose correctional nursing for this discussion because your paper is on correctional nursing.

• School nursing
• Home health nursing
• Occupational health nursing
• Forensic Nursing
• Hospice nursing
• Faith community nursing

PLEASE ONLY PICK ONE OF THESE, WHICH EVER ONE YOU PREFER TO TALK ABOUT 🙂

-Next study levels of prevention in this week’s lesson (primary, secondary, and tertiary). Note that the term primary is used differently than in normal conversation.

-Describe one of the levels of prevention, and discuss how a community health nurse (CHN) in the setting you discussed can implement this level of prevention.

Nies, M. A., & McEwen, M. (2019). Community/Public health nursing: Promoting the health of populations (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier.

*******Please include 2 APA references!, minimum of 3 paragraphs needed, thanks!***********

LESSON to help with answering question:

levels of prevention

Healthy People provides science-based, 10-year health objectives for our nation by gathering data from hundreds of databases, evaluating research evidence, and collaborating with public health experts across the country. These objectives guide our national public health efforts. Healthy People 2020 sets objectives that we are working to achieve by the year 2020. This includes over 1,200 objectives in 42 topic areas (U.S. Health and Human Services [U.S. HHS], 2018). These objectives direct and monitor the progress of key national health outcomes. Healthy People 2020 provides a road map for the health promotion and disease prevention activities of community health nursing. Follow this link https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives (Links to an external site.) to explore the wide variety of topics covered. Click on a topic, and then the green objectives tab to drill down and see the specific measurable objectives that guide our practice.

Levels of Prevention

Community health nurses work in a variety of settings, but their focus is primarily on health promotion and disease prevention. Health promotion activities are those that improve well-being. Disease prevention activities protect people from disease and the subsequent effects of disease (Nies & McEwen, 2019). Below are examples of the three levels of prevention: primary, secondary, and tertiary.The settings where community health nurses practice are quite varied. They include health departments, schools, factories, correctional facilities, faith communities, and home health settings. Your text provides a wonderful glimpse into nursing practice in these settings (Nies & McEwen, 2019). For example, a newer specialty area is forensic nursing. This field combines forensic science and criminal justice with our nursing practice to assist victims of violence. The Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) program is one aspect of this specialty.

Although the settings may be different, the nurses who work in these settings have many things in common. They each have a scope and standards of practice for their role and area of focus and typically have a professional organization. This organization may be a special interest group within a larger organization, such as the American Nurses’ Association, or it may be a separate organization. The nurses may be specialists or generalists.School nursing is considered a specialty, with a large professional organization—the National Association of School Nursing. Back in the early days of school nursing, communicable disease was rampant, but as times have changed, school nursing has kept up with changes in society and with the needs of the students. School nurses now see multiple health problems in children that involve social, emotional, behavioral, and even technological concerns. These issues need much more than a bandage; today’s health concerns require a wide range of services performed by professionals working together as a team.

In addition, advances in healthcare have significantly affected the health needs of children in the school setting. School nurses are caring for children with complex medical needs. School nurses are also involved in policy-making activities at both the local and state levels. The role of the school health nurse is not to duplicate services already in the community, but to augment services and help enhance healthcare delivery. The school nurse of today has many roles. Influence of Nursing Theory: Pender’s Health Promotion Model

Approaches to health education take various forms. Nola Pender has developed the health promotion model, which emphasizes cognitive-perceptual factors but also seeks to discover why people make the choices they do and what factors contribute to these choices (Sakraida, 2014). Major concepts in Pender’s model include prior behavior, biological factors, psychological factors, sociocultural factors, perceived benefits of acting, barriers to acting, self-efficiency, interpersonal influences, situational influences, and a commitment to a plan of action. Pender describes how competing demands and preferences may motivate the individual to engage in less healthy behaviors. Factors over which the person has low control may take precedence, whereas those over which the person has high control can be better managed.

Health resources for use in community health teaching plans are almost limitless. Professional organizations, health systems, government websites, and health-related databases contain endless resources for use with population-focused education. Nurses also need to consider the literacy level of their audience to find the best materials to match reading and comprehension skills. The CDC (2017) describes its health literacy initiatives at https://www.cdc.gov/healthliteracy/ (Links to an external site.).

Using a systematic approach to health communication and education doesn’t mean all theory and science and no creativity. In fact, creativity is needed more than ever when it comes to tailoring a framework to each aggregate. Barriers and challenges to effective community health education are many; therefore perseverance, confidence, support, and motivation are needed by both populations and providers in order to enhance wellness. So, use your imagination when developing goals, strategies, and education materials.Evidence-Based Community Health Interventions

Health education is an important intervention for those working with populations but often more is needed to effect behavior change. The health planning model that we discussed in the Week 2 Lesson illustrates how to apply the nursing process to a community setting. There is a wide range of possible interventions that community health nurses can implement, as you learned when studying the Public Health Intervention Wheel. Interventions can also involve changes in the built environment to encourage healthy lifestyle choices, such as walking paths, bike paths, safe parks, and community gardens. When choosing interventions, given limited resources in our communities, it is crucial that interventions are based on reliable evidence and proven to achieve the desired outcomes.

Community health nurses don’t have to reinvent the wheel when they see that an intervention is needed. There are many databases of evidence-based interventions focused on improving community health. The Community Guide is one example and is a wonderful resource for locating evidence-based interventions. The Community Guide houses the collection of evidence-based findings from the Community Preventive Services Taskforce commissioned by the U.S. HHS at https://www.thecommunityguide.org/ (Links to an external site.) and choose a topic and explore the evidence-based programs that are available. The site includes amazing resources for all those working to improve the health of our communities.

Summary

This week, we began learning about our nation’s roadmap for health promotion and disease prevention, Healthy People 2020. The public health levels of prevention were reviewed, which outline prevention and health promotion strategies. We then focused on exploring a variety of roles and settings of community health nursing, with school nursing used as an example of a community setting. We wrapped up discussing the challenges in health education that are faced in the community as we learned about the important role of community health nurses in improving the health of our communities.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2017). Health literacy. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthliteracy/

Guide to Preventive Services. (n.d.). The Community Guide. Retrieved from https://www.thecommunityguide.org/

Nies, M. A., & McEwen, M. (2019). Community/Public health nursing: Promoting the health of populations (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier.

Sakraida, T. J. (2014). Nola J. Pender: Health Promotion Model. In M. R. Alligood (Ed.), Nursing theorists and their work (8th ed.) (pp. 386–416). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2018). Healthy People 2020. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/

Here is also a helpful article to read and assist with answering the discussion question:

Kub, J. E., Kulbok, P. A., Miner, S., & Merrill, J. A. (2017). Increasing the capacity of public health nursing to strengthen the public health infrastructure and to promote and protect the health of communities and populations. Nursing Outlook, 6, 5661–664. doi:10.1016/j.outlook.2017.08.009. Retrieved from https://www-sciencedirect-com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/science/article/pii/S0029655417304086