Need 2 500 word repsponses to 2 peer discussion threads below with cited references


Border security and risk management; pretty vast and area to cover under the Homeland Defense. Beside the flow of illicit drugs and human tricking the biggest breach within the homeland defense was on September 11, 2001, The September 11th attacks drew attention to U.S. air defense, and the 9/11 Commission Report recommended that Congress regularly assess the ability of Northern Command to defend the United States against military threats (99/11 Commission Report []. Protecting United States (U.S). airspace might be one of the biggest challenge that the department of Homeland Security faces. Effectively protecting U.S. airspace requires detecting threatening aircraft and cruise missiles, making decisions on how to address these threats. The underlining problem that the USAF and North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) faced on September 11, was the utter lack of any air defense doctrine to protect the homeland. It was pretty evident that even during the first half hour of the commercial airlines smashing and crashing into building in New York City, and Washington D.C areas NORAD was helpless. In lieu of the findings U.S. Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) was established Oct. 1, 2002 to provide command and control of Department of Defense (DOD) homeland defense efforts and to coordinate defense support of civil authorities. USNORTHCOM defends America’s homeland — protecting our people, national power, and freedom of action (ABOUT USNORTHCOM

The commander of USNORTHCOM also commands the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), a bi-national command responsible for aerospace warning, aerospace control, and maritime warning for Canada, Alaska and the continental United States.

Civil service employees and uniformed members representing all service branches work at USNORTHCOM’s headquarters located at Peterson Air Force Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado. USNORTHCOM’s civil support mission includes domestic disaster relief operations that occur during fires, hurricanes, floods and earthquakes. Support also includes counter-drug operations and managing the consequences of a terrorist event employing a weapon of mass destruction. The command provides assistance to a Primary Agency when tasked by DOD. Per the Posse Comitatus Act, military forces can provide civil support, but cannot become directly involved in law enforcement. (ABOUT USNORTHCOM

The mince of interdiction of illicit drugs flowing into the homeland is primary responsibility of the U.S Coat Guard (USCG), Custom & Border Protection (CBP) and Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).

Human trafficking and illegal immigration is the biggest problem and challenge that one of the fastest growing aspect of illicit drug smuggling into the U.S via air drops. Although both the U.S Customs and North COM do have armed aircrafts but under the rules engagement they are only allowed to track the suspect aircraft and follow them to the point they release or drop their payload of illicit drugs and other contrabands.

The majority of illegal drugs enter the United States in an assortment of vehicles, with drugs hidden in secret compartments in door panels or the roof, gas tanks, tires and even engines. However, since 2016 when President Trump came into the White and the strong rhetoric of building the wall and stopping the ground based follow of the drugs the drug barons and their associates have restored to a more viable method smuggling g these illegal merchandise via air drops.

The drug problem is an ever growing problem in the U.S, it is an unabated mince and war on it has been causing immense damage to the economy and fracturing the fiber of it.

The risk associated with this problem is huge. It effects the state, local, tribal, levels. The war on drugs has the potential to be more dangerous to the American public then the terrorism



Issue 1
One of the issues regarding border security is simply the vast amount of border there is to secure. There are security checkpoints set up along the border but those checkpoints are not where the illegal movement is happening. The amount of space between checkpoints is too large but there is no way to have the entire border patrolled 24/7 without expending enormous amounts of money. Even when remotely piloted aircraft is used, only some small areas are been watch at any single period of time.
Issue 2
Another issue is the inherent difficulty of providing border security without stopping tourism and trade in and out of the country. It is extremely difficult to ensure that every package that enters the United States is checked thoroughly. There is simply not enough time to do that while getting products to the shelves. This leaves the possibility of illegal products (weapons, drugs) to cross the border.
Lastly, there is a lack of experience in the border patrol agents due to a higher rate of attrition. With this, too much time is spent on training new recruits and less time spent on the actual job. In addition, when constantly hiring to replace people, it is difficult to get more people to patrol other areas.
I think that the way it is set up right now with Customs and Border Patrol in charge of the border with homeland security above them is the way it should be. There needs to be a dedicated agency that focuses strictly on border issues. But at the same time, it is part of homeland security so the DHS should be the overarching department in charge.

Nims Unified Command is basically incident management with respect to disaster response performed by representatives of several agencies to assure that a consistent response plan is been developed. Although a single Incident Commander normally handles the command function, an Incident Command Structure organization may be expanded into a Unified Command (UC). The UC is a structure that brings together the “Incident Commanders” of all major organizations involved in the incident in order to coordinate an effective response while at the same time carrying out their own jurisdictional responsibilities. The UC links the organizations responding to the incident and provides a forum for these entities to make consensus decisions. Under the UC, the various jurisdictions or agencies and non-government responders may blend together throughout the operation to create an integrated response team. The UC is responsible for overall management of the incident. The UC directs incident activities, including development and implementation of overall objectives and strategies, and approves ordering and releasing of resources. Members of the UC work together to develop a common set of incident objectives and strategies, share information, maximize the use of available resources, and enhance the efficiency of the individual response organizations. On the other hand, it was also recognized that every incident must have one person with the responsibility and authority to direct tactical actions; otherwise, chaos would easily prevail on multi-jurisdictional or multi-agency incidents

Steinmetz, T. (2011). Mitigating the exploitation of U.S. borders by jihadists and criminal organizations. Journal of Strategic Security, 4(3), 29-48.
FEMA (2018, June 25). IS-700.B: An Introduction to the National Incident Management System. Retrieved from……