ISSC341 discussion response


I need two responses of at least 150 words each for the below students discussions for this week. Also in the bold below are the questions the students at answering.

1) Using course resources and the Internet, please explain the following Flash Memory Cards:

a. Secure Digital (SD)
b. Compact Flash (CF)
c. Memory Stick (MS)
d. MultiMediaCard (MMC)
e. xD-Picture Card (xD)
f. SmartMedia (SM)

Student one:

  1. Using course resources and the Internet, please explain the following Flash Memory Cards:

A. Secure Digital (SD) – A standard SD card is 32 mm long, 24 mm wide, and 2.1 mm thick

Mini SD card is 21.5 mm x 20 mm x 1.4 mm. Has storage capacities ranging from 8 MB to 4 GB. Supports digital rights management (DRM) technology. SD cards usually come preformatted with the FAT32 file system SDHC cards support capacities greater than 4 GB. Not compatible with older devices that accept SD cards.
B. Compact Flash (CF) – One of the older flash memory types. There are two types of CF cards: Type I cards are 3.3 mm thick and Type II cards are 5 mm thick. CF cards have storage capacities ranging from 2 MB to 100 GB. CF cards have a controller chip that attempts to prevent the premature wearing out of a particular sector. It spreads the data out over the device when writing.

C. Memory Stick (MS) – There are various types of Memory Sticks with capacities ranging from 4 MB to 32 GB. Cards are typically used with digital cameras, PDAs, and the PlayStation Portable (PSP) Memory Sticks support high-speed data transfers, with a maximum speed of 160 Mbps.

D. Multimedia Card (MMC) – An MMC is 32 mm long, 24 mm wide, and 1.4 mm thick. It is almost the same size as an SD card. The SD format is actually a successor to MMC. It can fit into most devices that support SD cards. MMC supports storage capacities up to 8 GB.

E. xD-Picture Card (xD) – Card is 20 mm long, 25 mm wide, and 1.78 mm thick and format supports storage capacities up to 8 GB. Cards are used primarily in digital cameras that are made by Olympus and Fujifilm, developers of the format xD cards support fast data transfer rates.

F. SmartMedia (SM) – Cards are 45 mm long, 37 mm wide, and 0.76 mm thick with a storage capacity ranging from 2 MB to 128 MB. Cards can be used with PC Card slots, CF Type II slots, and 3½-inch floppy drives using adapters. Larger size makes it impractical for use in most modern devices.

USB Flash Drives – USB flash drives, NAND-type flash memory data storage devices integrated with a USB 1.1 or 2.0 interface. Small in size, lightweight, easily detachable, and rewritable

Storage capacities range from 8 MB to 64 GB. Usually used for relatively quick portable storage

Uses the USB mass storage standard. Other names: Pen drives, thumb drives, jump drives, USB keys, USB sticks, key drives, and vault drives USB flash drive consists of a small printed circuit board enclosed in a robust plastic or metal casing; connector is usually protected by a detachable cap; does not require batteries; gets its power from the device to which it is connected.

To access the data that is stored on a flash drive, a user must connect the drive to either a:

USB port and or USB hub attached to a computer or other device. Components of a USB flash drive: Male type-A USB connector; mass storage controller; jumpers and test pins; NAND flash memory chip; crystal oscillator; LED; write-protect switches. Common uses of USB flash drives: transfer data from one computer to another; perform system administration tasks; to transfer applications; to hold music; and, to boot operating systems.


Årnes, André. (© 2018). Digital forensics. [Books24x7 version]

Bartz, Robert J. (© 2018). Cwts, cws, and cwt: complete study guide, exams pw0-071, cws-2017,

cwt-2017. [Books24x7 version]


Student two:

First of all, welcome to week three. So, for this week’s forum post we have been tasked to answer one question with six parts. It is my intent to answer each one individually below. Please let me know what you think or what I missed or just totally got wrong.

Q: Using course resources and the Internet, please explain the following Flash Memory Cards:

While it appears the listed flash memory is visually different and used it different circumstances, they are generally the same viewed as stable solid state, portable media. All of them benefit from reduced size and no moving parts, however, the user will have to content with maximum write cycles that can influence the overall life span of the device.
a. Secure Digital (SD): The SD card was originally created back in 2005 and was improved upon with the introduction of the Micro version in 2016. Starting at 128 Mb, they are able to hold up to 2 terabytes.
b. Compact Flash (CF): The compact flash card was the predecessor to the SD card, the grandparent to the SD card. It was slightly larger, thicker, and was intended high end digital camera photography. Developed by San Disk, they can typically hold anywhere from 2MB to 512GBs.
c. Memory Stick (MS): When I hear memory stick, I think Universal Serial Bus (USB) since it’s was one of the quickest to wide spread acceptance. However, that is not the case, MS was a Sony proprietary attempt at flash memory. Launched in 1998, mostly for use in Sony products like the PlayStation, cameras, and phones. Sony’s Memory Stick, had storage ranging from 64Mb to 16GB.
d. MultiMediaCard (MMC): While MMC was one of the first removable media types used in cellular technology, designed in 1997, it has been widely retired in removable form. MMC technology is not yet disappeared, it in fact has found a new lease on life as embedded memory with the typical memory size of 128GB.
e. xD-Picture Card (xD): The xD picture card has likely seen less wide spread use and limited marketability due to its proprietary use in Olympus camera gear. Introduced in 2002, with memory ranges from 16MB to 512MB, it is now widely considered obsolete.
f. SmartMedia (SM): The SM cards main advantage was its ability to manipulate smaller chunks of data, something its competitors could not do as well, however, it was more delicate then its contemporaries. Its limited 128MB memory offering, along with its lack of reliability, and comparative size to the CF card did not help its marketability.

Thanks for stopping in and taking a read.



Peter. (2018, November 18). Counterclockwise: Short history of the memory card. Retrieved July 16, 2019, from…

Rouse, M., & Kranz, G. (n.d.). What is flash memory card? – Definition from Retrieved July 16, 2019, from

Rouse, M. (n.d.). What is SmartMedia card? – Definition from Retrieved July 16, 2019, from…

XD-Picture Card (2002 – 2010). (2018, December 22). Retrieved July 16, 2019, from