This exam consists of a series of essay questions. You have 5 parts, and in each part, choose one of 3 essay questions.
Part 1 (chapters 1-2): choose one of the following 3 questions and write a detailed response is worth a possible 50 points.
(1) Two political ideologies took center stage in the history of Latin America. First, classic liberalism emerged in the nineteenth century. Nationalism, a later invention, emerged in response to the first. In which ways have liberalism and nationalism alternated in ascendancy during the past 150 years?
(2) Briefly compare the differences between the nonsedentary, semisedentary, and fully sedentary groups that inhabited the Americas before the Encounter? How would you describe their relationship to the land? How did it vary from group to group?
(3) How did the conquest of Brazil differ from the conquest of Spanish America? Be sure to include discussion of the following cultures: Tupi, Aztec, Mayas, and Incas.
Part 2 (chapters 3-4): choose one of the following 3 questions and write a detailed response to it in Canvas. Your answer is worth a possible 20 points.
(1) If the Spanish and Portuguese colonial system was a brutal one in which native Americans and peoples of African descent were oppressed, why did colonialism last for so long?
(2) Discuss the causes of the independence movements in order to pinpoint the reason for the collapse of Spanish and Portuguese rule in most of Latin America.
(3) Who would you identify as the main leaders behind the independence movements in Spanish America? How did they manage to get “the people” behind their cause?
Part 3 (chapters 5-6): choose one of the following 3 questions and write a detailed response to it in Canvas. Your answer is worth a possible 20 points
(1) Who was the caudillo, and what ideas did he represent? Provide an example of a well-known caudillo.
(2) Briefly compare liberal ideas versus conservative ideas. Which ideas do you think predominated in postcolonial Latin America?
(3) War is usually regarded as a catalyst for change; was this the case in Latin America? Use examples to illustrate your point.
Part 4 (chapters 7-8): choose one of the following 3 questions and write a detailed response to it in Canvas. Your answer is worth a possible 20 points (1) How did the relationship between the United States and Latin America change during the nineteenth century?
(2) Who was Porfirio Díaz? Describe his ruling style. Be sure to include the following terms in your discussion: rurales, hacendados, pan o el palo, cientificos
(3) Who were Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo? How did they represent the peasants and indigenous people who fought in the Mexican Revolution? Be sure to include in your discussion a commentary on revolutionary ideals in Rivera’s Detroit Industry mural series.
Part 5 (chapters 9-11): choose one of the following 3 questions and write a detailed response to it in Canvas. Your answer is worth a possible 20 points
(1) What is populism? Provide at least two examples that demonstrate how populism functioned in Latin America.
(2) Why did the military stage a coup d’état in Brazil? Once in power, how did they rule the country?
(3) Who were the neoliberals, and what did they want?
Chasteen, John Charles (2011) Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America, Fourth Edition. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Grandin, Greg (2009) Fordlandia: The Rise and Fall of Henry Ford’s Forgotten Jungle City. New York: Picador.